How, up coming, you will we establish ‘real causation with the structural equations design?
(8) A varying Y counterfactually hinges on a changeable X for the a model when the and simply if it is really the situation one X = x and you will Y = y so there are present opinions x? ? x and you will y? ? y in a fashion that replacement the fresh new formula to possess X which have X = x? Devamını Oku